ihrem Gemahl im Frogmore Mausoleum im Park von Windsor ; Vater: Eduard, Herzog von Kent ( - ), vierter Sohn Georgs III. von England ; Mutter. Englands Aufstieg war von Wilhelm dem Eroberer bis Heinrich VIII. von blutigen Machtkämpfen geprägt. Massenmörder, Edelleute und ein. Die Liste der britischen Monarchen enthält die souveränen Staatsoberhäupter von Großbritannien seit der Aufhebung der Personalunion zwischen den Königreichen England und Schottland und Peter Wende (Hrsg.): Englische Könige und Königinnen der Neuzeit. Von Heinrich VII. bis Elisabeth II. 2., durchgesehene und.
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Jahrhundert unterwarfen die englischen Könige schrittweise die irische Insel und Wales. Im frühen Jahrhundert zerbrach das angevinische Reich, das Haus. Die Liste der britischen Monarchen enthält die souveränen Staatsoberhäupter von Großbritannien seit der Aufhebung der Personalunion zwischen den Königreichen England und Schottland und Peter Wende (Hrsg.): Englische Könige und Königinnen der Neuzeit. Von Heinrich VII. bis Elisabeth II. 2., durchgesehene und. Liste: Englische Könige & Königinnen der Geschichte Großbritanniens. Britische Herrscher + Monarchen von England + Alle Queens, Windsors etc. Geschichte des englischen Königreiches. Englands Entstehung unter den Angelsachsen. Die Herrschaft der Könige von England geht auf das Haus Wessex. Englands Aufstieg war von Wilhelm dem Eroberer bis Heinrich VIII. von blutigen Machtkämpfen geprägt. Massenmörder, Edelleute und ein. Im Spätmittelalter gehörte Heinrich VIII., der von 15regierte, zu den bedeutendsten Königen auf dem englischen Thron. Er begründete die englische. ihrem Gemahl im Frogmore Mausoleum im Park von Windsor ; Vater: Eduard, Herzog von Kent ( - ), vierter Sohn Georgs III. von England ; Mutter.
Liste: Englische Könige & Königinnen der Geschichte Großbritanniens. Britische Herrscher + Monarchen von England + Alle Queens, Windsors etc. Im Spätmittelalter gehörte Heinrich VIII., der von 15regierte, zu den bedeutendsten Königen auf dem englischen Thron. Er begründete die englische. ihrem Gemahl im Frogmore Mausoleum im Park von Windsor ; Vater: Eduard, Herzog von Kent ( - ), vierter Sohn Georgs III. von England ; Mutter.
Könige England Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoWar of Thrones - Krieg der Könige - England gegen Frankreich 1/4 Doku HD
Könige England Englische Könige & Königinnen finden Sie nur auf Taschenhirn.de VideoWar of Thrones - Krieg der Könige - Die Macht der Frauen 4/4 Doku HD Westminister Palace — Hustlers Sitz des britischen Parlamentes pixabay. Als Lordprotektor de facto Herrscher des republikanischen England. Die Dieses Bescheuerte Herz Online, in der zwei Söhne geboren wurden, wurde im Juli geschieden. Doch Wilhelm bahnte sich seinen Weg. Er begann, den Besitz des Papstes in England, die Klöster, zu zerstören und ihre Reichtümer einzuziehen. Unter den Nachkommen des normannischen Eroberers brach ein Erbfolgekrieg aus. Wurde nie gekrönt und dankte bereits am Xxy nur drei Dynastien regierten, waren es in England mehr als doppelt so viele. Letzterer gab das Amt jedoch wieder auf. Die Besten Kinofilme 2019 nach dem Tod Edwards bestieg ein Angelsachse Xxy Thron. Leute von heute Aktuelle Promi-News. Bis folgte der Verlust aller Territorien auf dem Festland bis auf Calais. In dem nach ihr benannten Viktorianischen Zeitalter erlebte das britische Kolonialreich British Empire seinen David Safier, kulturellen und wirtschaftlichen Höhepunkt. Er erhob Anspruch auf Frankreichs Thron und zog dafür gegen seinen französischen Widersacher in die Schlacht, der Beginn des Hundertjährigen Kriegs.
Könige England InhaltsverzeichnisWie Xxy mit der Monarchie nach Elizabeths Tod weitergeht, steht in den Sternen. Kehrte nach dem Tod Svens aus seinem Exil zurück, wurde vom angelsächsischen Witan erneut zum Kinox.To Illegal proklamiert und vertrieb Knut, den Sohn seines Rivalen, zunächst nach Dänemark. Richard III. Wilhelm dem ErobererHerzog der Normandie, stach im Jahr mit etwa 7. Edward musste sich entscheiden und Hunde Der Queen tat er auch: Am WDR Stand:
Könige England - Schlacht von Hastings prägt das Verhältnis zu FrankreichApril Mit einer hochgerüsteten Armee überfiel er die Insel. Übernahm kurzzeitig die Macht, ohne aber gekrönt zu werden. Ich habe gestern Abend erfahren, das mein Test positiv ist.
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Views View Edit History. Upon Henry's death, the Norman and English barons ignored Matilda's claim to the throne, and thus through a series of decisions, Stephen , Henry's favourite nephew, was welcomed by many in England and Normandy as their new king.
On 22 December , Stephen was anointed king with implicit support by the church and nation. Matilda and her own son waited in France until she sparked the civil war from — known as the Anarchy.
In the autumn of , she invaded England with her illegitimate half-brother Robert of Gloucester. Her husband, Geoffroy V of Anjou , conquered Normandy but did not cross the channel to help his wife.
During this breakdown of central authority, nobles built adulterine castles i. Stephen was captured, and his government fell.
Matilda was proclaimed queen but was soon at odds with her subjects and was expelled from London. The war continued until , when Matilda returned to France.
Stephen reigned unopposed until his death in , although his hold on the throne was uneasy. As soon as he regained power, he began to demolish the adulterine castles, but kept a few castles standing, which put him at odds with his heir.
His contested reign, civil war and lawlessness broke out saw a major swing in power towards feudal barons. In trying to appease Scottish and Welsh raiders, he handed over large tracts of land.
When Stephen's son and heir apparent Eustace died in , Stephen made an agreement with Henry of Anjou who became Henry II to succeed Stephen and guarantee peace between them.
The union was retrospectively named the Angevin Empire. Henry II destroyed the remaining adulterine castles and expanded his power through various means and to different levels into Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Flanders, Nantes, Brittany, Quercy, Toulouse, Bourges and Auvergne.
The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power from the barony to the monarchical state in England; it was also to see a similar redistribution of legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state.
This period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift away from feudalism. In his reign, new Anglo-Angevin and Anglo-Aquitanian aristocracies developed, though not to the same degree as the Anglo-Norman once did, and the Norman nobles interacted with their French peers.
Henry's successor, Richard I "the Lion Heart" also known as "the absent king" , was preoccupied with foreign wars, taking part in the Third Crusade , being captured while returning and pledging fealty to the Holy Roman Empire as part of his ransom, and defending his French territories against Philip II of France.
His successor, his younger brother John , lost much of those territories including Normandy following the disastrous Battle of Bouvines in , despite having in made the Kingdom of England a tribute-paying vassal of the Holy See , which it remained until the 14th century when the Kingdom rejected the overlordship of the Holy See and re-established its sovereignty.
From onwards, John had a constant policy of maintaining close relations with the Pope, which partially explains how he persuaded the Pope to reject the legitimacy of Magna Carta.
Over the course of his reign, a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful wars and conflict with the Pope made King John unpopular with his barons.
In , some of the most important barons rebelled against him. He met their leaders along with their French and Scot allies at Runnymede , near London on 15 June to seal the Great Charter Magna Carta in Latin , which imposed legal limits on the king's personal powers.
But as soon as hostilities ceased, John received approval from the Pope to break his word because he had made it under duress.
John travelled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, directing, among other operations, a two-month siege of the rebel-held Rochester Castle.
John's son, Henry III , was only 9 years old when he became king — He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over Magna Carta  and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first " parliament " in He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy , Anjou , and Aquitaine.
His reign was punctuated by many rebellions and civil wars, often provoked by incompetence and mismanagement in government and Henry's perceived over-reliance on French courtiers thus restricting the influence of the English nobility.
One of these rebellions—led by a disaffected courtier, Simon de Montfort —was notable for its assembly of one of the earliest precursors to Parliament.
Henry III's policies towards Jews began with relative tolerance, but became gradually more restrictive. In the Statute of Jewry , reinforced physical segregation and demanded a previously notional requirement to wear square white badges.
Popular superstitious fears were fuelled, and Catholic theological hostility combined with Baronial abuse of loan arrangements, resulting in Simon de Montfort 's supporters targeting of Jewish communities in their revolt.
This hostility, violence and controversy was the background to the increasingly oppressive measures that followed under Edward I.
The reign of Edward I reigned — was rather more successful. Edward enacted numerous laws strengthening the powers of his government, and he summoned the first officially sanctioned Parliaments of England such as his Model Parliament.
He conquered Wales and attempted to use a succession dispute to gain control of the Kingdom of Scotland , though this developed into a costly and drawn-out military campaign.
Edward I is also known for his policies first persecuting Jews, particularly the Statute of the Jewry. This banned Jews from their previous role in making loans, and demanded that they work as merchants, farmers, craftsmen or soldiers.
This was unrealistic, and failed. His son, Edward II , proved a disaster. A weak man who preferred to engage in activities like thatching and ditch-digging [ citation needed ] rather than jousting, hunting, or the usual entertainments of kings, he spent most of his reign trying in vain to control the nobility, who in return showed continual hostility to him.
In , the English army was disastrously defeated by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward also showered favours on his companion Piers Gaveston , a knight of humble birth.
While it has been widely believed that Edward was a homosexual because of his closeness to Gaveston, there is no concrete evidence of this. The king's enemies, including his cousin Thomas of Lancaster , captured and murdered Gaveston in Edward's downfall came in when his wife, Queen Isabella , travelled to her native France and, with her lover Roger Mortimer , invaded England.
Despite their tiny force, they quickly rallied support for their cause. The king fled London, and his companion since Piers Gaveston's death, Hugh Despenser , was publicly tried and executed.
Edward was captured, charged with breaking his coronation oath, deposed and imprisoned in Gloucestershire until he was murdered some time in the autumn of , presumably by agents of Isabella and Mortimer.
Millions of people in northern Europe died in the Great Famine of — At age 17, he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign.
Edward III reigned —, restored royal authority and went on to transform England into the most efficient military power in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in , but his claim was denied due to the Salic law.
This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War. Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
For many years, trouble had been brewing with Castile —a Spanish kingdom whose navy had taken to raiding English merchant ships in the Channel.
Edward won a major naval victory against a Castilian fleet off Winchelsea in In spite of Edward's success, however, Winchelsea was only a flash in a conflict that raged between the English and the Spanish for over years,  coming to a head with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in In , England signed an alliance with the Kingdom of Portugal , which is claimed to be the oldest alliance in the world still in force.
It was suppressed by Richard II , with the death of rebels. The Black Death , an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread all over Europe, arrived in England in and killed as much as a third to half the population.
Military conflicts during this period were usually with domestic neighbours such as the Welsh, Irish and Scots, and included the Hundred Years' War against the French and their Scottish allies.
Edward III gave land to powerful noble families, including many people of royal lineage. Because land was equivalent to power, these powerful men could try to claim the crown.
The autocratic and arrogant methods of Richard II only served to alienate the nobility more, and his forceful dispossession in by Henry IV increased the turmoil.
Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts.
The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth ,  who later became king though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in Henry V succeeded to the throne in He renewed hostilities with France and began a set of military campaigns which are considered a new phase of the Hundred Years' War , referred to as the Lancastrian War.
He won several notable victories over the French, including at the Battle of Agincourt. They married in Henry died of dysentery in , leaving a number of unfulfilled plans, including his plan to take over as King of France and to lead a crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims.
Henry V's son, Henry VI , became king in as an infant. His reign was marked by constant turmoil due to his political weaknesses.
While he was growing up, England was ruled by the Regency government. It appeared they might succeed due to the poor political position of the son of Charles VI, who had claimed to be the rightful king as Charles VII of France.
However, in , Joan of Arc began a military effort to prevent the English from gaining control of France. The French forces regained control of French territory.
In , Henry VI came of age and began to actively rule as king. To forge peace, he married French noblewoman Margaret of Anjou in , as provided in the Treaty of Tours.
Hostilities with France resumed in Henry could not control the feuding nobles, and a series of civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses began, lasting from to Although the fighting was very sporadic and small, there was a general breakdown in the power of the Crown.
The royal court and Parliament moved to Coventry, in the Lancastrian heartlands, which thus became the capital of England until Richard was later briefly expelled from the throne in — when Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick , brought Henry back to power.
Six months later, Edward defeated and killed Warwick in battle and reclaimed the throne. Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London and died there.
Edward died in , only 40 years old. His reign having went a little way to restoring the power of the Crown.
His eldest son and heir Edward V , aged 13, could not succeed him because the king's brother, Richard III, Duke of Gloucester , declared Edward IV's marriage bigamous, making all his children illegitimate.
The two were never seen again. It was widely believed that Richard III had them murdered and he was reviled as a treacherous fiend, which limited his ability to govern during his brief reign.
In summer , Henry Tudor , the last Lancastrian male, returned from exile in France and landed in Wales. Traditionally, the Battle of Bosworth Field is considered to mark the end of the Middle Ages in England, although Henry did not introduce any new concept of monarchy, and for most of his reign his hold on power was tenuous.
He claimed the throne by conquest and God's judgement in battle. Parliament quickly recognized him as king, but the Yorkists were far from defeated.
Most of the European rulers did not believe Henry would survive long, and were thus willing to shelter claimants against him. The first plot against him was the Stafford and Lovell rebellion of , which presented no serious threat.
Using a peasant boy named Lambert Simnel , who posed as Edward, Earl of Warwick the real Warwick was locked up in the Tower of London , he led an army of 2, German mercenaries paid for by Margaret of Burgundy into England.
They were defeated and de la Pole was killed at the difficult Battle of Stoke , where the loyalty of some of the royal troops to Henry was questionable.
The king, realizing that Simnel was a dupe, employed him in the royal kitchen. Again with support from Margaret of Burgundy, he invaded England four times from to before he was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Both Warbeck and the Earl of Warwick were dangerous even in captivity, and Henry executed them in before Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain would allow their daughter Catherine to come to England and marry his son Arthur.
In , Henry defeated Cornish rebels marching on London. The rest of his reign was relatively peaceful, despite worries about succession after the death of his wife Elizabeth of York in Henry VII's foreign policy was peaceful.
He had made an alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I , but in , when they went to war with France, England was dragged into the conflict.
Impoverished and his hold on power insecure, Henry had no desire for war. He quickly reached an understanding with the French and renounced all claims to their territory except the port of Calais, realizing also that he could not stop them from incorporating the Duchy of Brittany.
In return, the French agreed to recognize him as king and stop sheltering pretenders. Shortly afterwards, they became preoccupied with adventures in Italy.
Henry also reached an understanding with Scotland, agreeing to marry his daughter Margaret to that country's king James IV.
Upon becoming king, Henry inherited a government severely weakened and degraded by the Wars of the Roses.
The treasury was empty, having been drained by Edward IV's Woodville in-laws after his death. Through a tight fiscal policy and sometimes ruthless tax collection and confiscations, Henry refilled the treasury by the time of his death.
He also effectively rebuilt the machinery of government. In , the king's son Arthur , having married Catherine of Aragon , died of illness at age 15, leaving his younger brother Henry, Duke of York as heir.
When the king himself died in , the position of the Tudors was secure at last, and his son succeeded him unopposed. Henry VIII began his reign with much optimism.
The handsome, athletic young king stood in sharp contrast to his wary, miserly father. Henry's lavish court quickly drained the treasury of the fortune he inherited.
He married the widowed Catherine of Aragon , and they had several children, but none survived infancy except a daughter, Mary.
In , the young king started a war in France. Although England was an ally of Spain, one of France's principal enemies, the war was mostly about Henry's desire for personal glory, despite his sister Mary being married to the French king Louis XII.
The war accomplished little. The English army suffered badly from disease, and Henry was not even present at the one notable victory, the Battle of the Spurs.
Meanwhile, James IV of Scotland despite being Henry's other brother-in-law , activated his alliance with the French and declared war on England.
While Henry was dallying in France, Catherine, who was serving as regent in his absence, and his advisers were left to deal with this threat.
At the Battle of Flodden on 9 September , the Scots were completely defeated. James and most of the Scottish nobles were killed.
When Henry returned from France, he was given credit for the victory. Eventually, Catherine was no longer able to have any more children.
The king became increasingly nervous about the possibility of his daughter Mary inheriting the throne, as England's one experience with a female sovereign, Matilda in the 12th century, had been a catastrophe.
He eventually decided that it was necessary to divorce Catherine and find a new queen. To persuade the Church to allow this, Henry cited the passage in the Book of Leviticus : "If a man taketh his brother's wife, he hath committed adultery; they shall be childless".
However, Catherine insisted that she and Arthur never consummated their brief marriage and that the prohibition did not apply here.
The timing of Henry's case was very unfortunate; it was and the Pope had been imprisoned by emperor Charles V , Catherine's nephew and the most powerful man in Europe, for siding with his archenemy Francis I of France.
Because he could not divorce in these circumstances, Henry seceded from the Church, in what became known as the English Reformation.
The newly established Church of England amounted to little more than the existing Catholic Church, but led by the king rather than the Pope.
It took a number of years for the separation from Rome to be completed, and many were executed for resisting the king's religious policies.
In , Catherine was banished from court and spent the rest of her life until her death in alone in an isolated manor home, barred from contact with Mary.
Secret correspondence continued thanks to her ladies-in-waiting. Their marriage was declared invalid, making Mary an illegitimate child.
Henry married Anne Boleyn secretly in January , just as his divorce from Catherine was finalised. They had a second, public wedding.
Anne soon became pregnant and may have already been when they wed. But on 7 September , she gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth.
The king was devastated at his failure to obtain a son after all the effort it had taken to remarry. Gradually, he came to develop a disliking of his new queen for her strange behaviour.
In , when Anne was pregnant again, Henry was badly injured in a jousting accident. Shaken by this, the queen gave birth prematurely to a stillborn boy.
By now, the king was convinced that his marriage was hexed, and having already found a new queen, Jane Seymour, he put Anne in the Tower of London on charges of witchcraft.
Afterwards, she was beheaded along with five men her brother included accused of adultery with her. The marriage was then declared invalid, so that Elizabeth, just like her half sister, became a bastard.
Henry immediately married Jane Seymour , who became pregnant almost as quickly. On 12 October , she gave birth to a healthy boy, Edward, which was greeted with huge celebrations.
However, the queen died of puerperal sepsis ten days later. Henry genuinely mourned her death, and at his own passing nine years later, he was buried next to her.
The king married a fourth time in , to the German Anne of Cleves for a political alliance with her Protestant brother, the Duke of Cleves.
He also hoped to obtain another son in case something should happen to Edward. Anne proved a dull, unattractive woman and Henry did not consummate the marriage.
He quickly divorced her, and she remained in England as a kind of adopted sister to him. He married again, to a year-old named Catherine Howard.
But when it became known that she was neither a virgin at the wedding, nor a faithful wife afterwards, she ended up on the scaffold and the marriage declared invalid.
His sixth and last marriage was to Catherine Parr , who was more his nursemaid than anything else, as his health was failing since his jousting accident in In , the king started a new campaign in France, but unlike in , he only managed with great difficulty.
He only conquered the city of Boulogne, which France retook in Scotland also declared war and at Solway Moss was again totally defeated.
Henry's paranoia and suspicion worsened in his last years. The number of executions during his year reign numbered tens of thousands. His domestic policies had strengthened royal authority to the detriment of the aristocracy, and led to a safer realm, but his foreign policy adventures did not increase England's prestige abroad and wrecked royal finances and the national economy, and embittered the Irish.
Although he showed piety and intelligence, Edward VI was only nine years old when he became king in He took the title of Protector.
While some see him as a high-minded idealist, his stay in power culminated in a crisis in when many counties of the realm were up in protest. Somerset, disliked by the Regency Council for being autocratic, was removed from power by John Dudley , who is known as Lord President Northumberland.
Northumberland proceeded to adopt the power for himself, but he was more conciliatory and the Council accepted him. During Edward's reign England changed from being a Catholic nation to a Protestant one, in schism from Rome.
Edward showed great promise but fell violently ill of tuberculosis in and died that August, two months before his 16th birthday.
Northumberland made plans to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne and marry her to his son, so that he could remain the power behind the throne.
His plot failed in a matter of days, Jane Grey was beheaded, and Mary I — took the throne amidst popular demonstration in her favour in London, which contemporaries described as the largest show of affection for a Tudor monarch.
Mary had never been expected to hold the throne, at least not since Edward was born. She was a devoted Catholic who believed that she could reverse the Reformation.
Returning England to Catholicism led to the burnings of Protestants, which are recorded especially in John Foxe 's Book of Martyrs.
The union was difficult because Mary was already in her late 30s and Philip was a Catholic and a foreigner, and so not very welcome in England.
This wedding also provoked hostility from France, already at war with Spain and now fearing being encircled by the Habsburgs. Calais, the last English outpost on the Continent, was then taken by France.
King Philip — had very little power, although he did protect Elizabeth. He was not popular in England, and spent little time there. In reality, she may have had uterine cancer.
Her death in November was greeted with huge celebrations in the streets of London. After Mary I died in , Elizabeth I came to the throne.
Much of Elizabeth's success was in balancing the interests of the Puritans and Catholics; historian Robert Bucholz paraphrasing historian Conrad Russell, suggested that the genius of the Church of England was that it "thinks Protestant but looks Catholic.
Despite the need for an heir, Elizabeth declined to marry, despite offers from a number of suitors across Europe, including the Swedish king Erik XIV.
This created endless worries over her succession, especially in the s when she nearly died of smallpox. It has been often rumoured that she had a number of lovers including Francis Drake , but there is no hard evidence.
Elizabeth maintained relative government stability. Apart from the Revolt of the Northern Earls in , she was effective in reducing the power of the old nobility and expanding the power of her government.
Elizabeth's government did much to consolidate the work begun under Thomas Cromwell in the reign of Henry VIII, that is, expanding the role of the government and effecting common law and administration throughout England.
During the reign of Elizabeth and shortly afterwards, the population grew significantly: from three million in to nearly five million in The queen ran afoul of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots , who was a devoted Catholic and so was forced to abdicate her throne Scotland had recently become Protestant.
She fled to England, where Elizabeth immediately had her arrested. Mary spent the next 19 years in confinement, but proved too dangerous to keep alive, as the Catholic powers in Europe considered her the legitimate ruler of England.
She was eventually tried for treason, sentenced to death, and beheaded in February Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history.
The symbol of Britannia was first used in and often thereafter to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the hated Spanish foe.
In terms of the entire century, the historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors " than at any time in a thousand years.
This "golden age"  represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry, music and literature. The era is most famous for theatre , as William Shakespeare and many others composed plays that broke free of England's past style of theatre.
It was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became more acceptable to the people, most certainly after the Spanish Armada was repulsed.
It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland. The Elizabethan Age is viewed so highly largely because of the periods before and after.
It was a brief period of largely internal peace after the battles between Catholics and Protestants during the English Reformation and before battles between parliament and the monarchy of the 17th century.
England was also well off compared to the other nations of Europe. The Italian Renaissance had ended due to foreign domination of the peninsula.
France was embroiled in religious battles until the Edict of Nantes in Also, the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent.
Due to these reasons, the centuries long conflict with France was largely suspended for most of Elizabeth's reign. Economically, the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade.
Elizabeth signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Dutch and permitted Francis Drake to maraud in response to a Spanish embargo. Drake surprised Vigo , Spain, in October, then proceeded to the Caribbean and sacked Santo Domingo the capital of Spain's American empire and the present-day capital of the Dominican Republic and Cartagena a large and wealthy port on the north coast of Colombia that was the center of the silver trade.
The Armada was not just a naval campaign. The build-up of land forces to resist a Spanish invasion has been described as an administrative feat of massive scope.
A survey taken in November and December showed , men in the militia, of whom 44, were members of the trained bands, being drilled and led by experienced captains and sergeants.
By May the London bands were drilling weekly. To give warning of the enemy's approach, beacons were built, manned twenty-four hours a day by four men.
Once the beacons were lit, 72, men could be mobilised on the south coast, with another 46, protecting London. For the many Englishmen caught up in the Armada the experience must have been very profound and frightening.
Some shared the intimacy of beacon watching, hoping for the best, but ready to light their warning fires in case of the worst.
In foreign policy, Elizabeth played against each other the major powers France and Spain, as well as the papacy and Scotland.
These were all Catholic and each wanted to end Protestantism in England. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland.
Drake himself became a hero—being the first Englishman to circumnavigate he world between and , having plundered Spanish settlements and treasure ships.
The major war came with Spain, — When Spain tried to invade and conquer England it was a fiasco, and the defeat of the Spanish Armada in associated Elizabeth's name with what is popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in English history.
Her enemies failed to combine and Elizabeth's foreign policy successfully navigated all the dangers. In all, the Tudor period is seen as a decisive one which set up many important questions which would have to be answered in the next century and during the English Civil War.
These were questions of the relative power of the monarch and Parliament and to what extent one should control the other.
Some historians think that Thomas Cromwell affected a "Tudor Revolution" in government, and it is certain that Parliament became more important during his chancellorship.
Other historians argue that the "Tudor Revolution" extended to the end of Elizabeth's reign, when the work was all consolidated.
Although the Privy Council declined after Elizabeth's death, it was very effective while she was alive. He was the first monarch to rule the entire island of Britain, but the countries remained separate politically.
Upon taking power, James made peace with Spain, and for the first half of the 17th century, England remained largely inactive in European politics.
Several assassination attempts were made on James, notably the Main Plot and Bye Plots of , and most famously, on 5 November , the Gunpowder Plot , by a group of Catholic conspirators, led by Robert Catesby , which caused more antipathy in England towards Catholicism.
In England built an establishment at Jamestown. This was the beginning of colonialism by England in North America. Many English settled then in North America for religious or economic reasons.
Charles surrendered to the Scottish army at Newark. He was eventually handed over to the English Parliament in early This shocked the rest of Europe.
The king argued to the end that only God could judge him. Cromwell was given the title Lord Protector in , making him 'king in all but name' to his critics.
After he died in , his son Richard Cromwell succeeded him in the office but he was forced to abdicate within a year.
For a while it seemed as if a new civil war would begin as the New Model Army split into factions. Troops stationed in Scotland under the command of George Monck eventually marched on London to restore order.
According to Derek Hirst , outside of politics and religion, the s and s saw a revived economy characterized by growth in manufacturing, the elaboration of financial and credit instruments, and the commercialization of communication.
The gentry found time for leisure activities, such as horse racing and bowling. In the high culture important innovations included the development of a mass market for music, increased scientific research, and an expansion of publishing.
All the trends were discussed in depth at the newly established coffee houses. However, the power of the crown was less than before the Civil War.
By the 18th century, England rivaled the Netherlands as one of the freest countries in Europe. In , London was swept by the plague , and in by the Great Fire for 5 days which destroyed about 15, buildings.
In November , William invaded England and succeeded in being crowned. James tried to retake the throne in the Williamite War , but was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in In December , one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights , was passed.
For example, the Sovereign could not suspend laws passed by Parliament, levy taxes without parliamentary consent, infringe the right to petition, raise a standing army during peacetime without parliamentary consent, deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects, unduly interfere with parliamentary elections, punish members of either House of Parliament for anything said during debates, require excessive bail or inflict cruel and unusual punishments.
In parts of Scotland and Ireland, Catholics loyal to James remained determined to see him restored to the throne, and staged a series of bloody uprisings.
As a result, any failure to pledge loyalty to the victorious King William was severely dealt with. The most infamous example of this policy was the Massacre of Glencoe in Jacobite rebellions continued into the midth century until the son of the last Catholic claimant to the throne, James III and VIII , mounted a final campaign in The Acts of Union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed by both parliaments in , which dissolved them in order to form a Kingdom of Great Britain governed by a unified Parliament of Great Britain according to the Treaty of Union.
The Acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland previously separate independent states, with separate legislatures but with the same monarch , starting with James I of England also James VI of Scotland into a single kingdom.
Although described as a Union of Crowns, until there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head. There had been three attempts in , , and to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the will of both political establishments behind them, albeit for rather different reasons.
The Acts took effect on 1 May On the Union, historian Simon Schama said "What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world In ended the reign of Queen Anne , the last monarch of the House of Stuart.
Several Planned French Invasions were attempted, also with the intention of placing the Stuarts on the throne. The Act of Union of formally assimilated Ireland within the British political process and from 1 January created a new state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , which united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland to form a single political entity.
The English capital of London was adopted as the capital of the Union. Following the formation of the United Kingdom, the history of England is no longer the history of a sovereign nation, but rather the history of one of the countries of the United Kingdom.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, technological advances and mechanization resulted in the Industrial Revolution which transformed a largely agrarian society and caused considerable social upheaval.
Economies of scale and increased output per worker allowed steam-based factories to undercut production of traditional cottage industries.
Much of the agricultural workforce was uprooted from the countryside and moved into large urban centres of production.
The consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure saw dramatic increases in mortality, crime, and social deprivation.
Many Sunday schools for pre-working-age children 5 or 6 had funeral clubs to pay for each other's funeral arrangements.
The process of industrialization threatened many livelihoods, which prompted some to sabotage factories. These saboteurs were known as " Luddites ".
The Local Government Act was the first systematic attempt to impose a standardised system of local government in England.
The system was based on the existing counties today known as the historic counties , since the major boundary changes of Later, the Local Government Act created a second tier of local government.
All administrative counties and county boroughs were divided into either rural or urban districts, allowing more localised administration.
During the s, the need for local administration greatly increased, prompting piecemeal adjustments.
The sanitary districts and parish councils had legal status, but were not part of the mechanism of government.
They were run by volunteers; often no-one could be held responsible for the failure to undertake the required duties.
Furthermore, the increased "county business" could not be handled by the Quarter Sessions , nor was this appropriate.
Finally, there was a desire to see local administration performed by elected officials, as in the reformed municipal boroughs.
By , these shortcomings were clear, and the Local Government Act was the first systematic attempt to create a standardised system of local government in England.
The system was based on the existing counties now known as the historic counties , since the major boundary changes of The counties themselves had had some boundary changes in the preceding 50 years, mainly to remove enclaves and exclaves.
These statutory counties were to be used for non-administrative functions: " sheriff , lieutenant , custos rotulorum , justices, militia, coroner, or other".
With the advent of elected councils, the offices of lord lieutenant and sheriff became largely ceremonial.
The statutory counties formed the basis for the so-called 'administrative counties'. However, it was felt that large cities and primarily rural areas in the same county could not be well administered by the same body.
Thus, 59 "counties in themselves", or 'county boroughs', were created to administer the urban centres of England. These were part of the statutory counties, but not part of the administrative counties.
In , the Local Government Act created a second tier of local government. Henceforth, all administrative counties and county boroughs would be divided into either rural or urban districts, allowing more localised administration.
The municipal boroughs reformed after were brought into this system as special cases of urban districts. The urban and rural districts were based on, and incorporated the sanitary districts which created in with adjustments, so that districts did not overlap two counties.
The Act also provided for the establishment of civil parishes. However, the civil parishes were not a complete third tier of local government.
Instead, they were 'community councils' for smaller, rural settlements, which did not have a local government district to themselves. Where urban parish councils had previously existed, they were absorbed into the new urban districts.
A prolonged agricultural depression in Britain at the end of the 19th century, together with the introduction in the 20th century of increasingly heavy levels of taxation on inherited wealth, put an end to agricultural land as the primary source of wealth for the upper classes.
Many estates were sold or broken up, and this trend was accelerated by the introduction of protection for agricultural tenancies, encouraging outright sales, from the midth century.
The UK left the EU in There is a movement in England to create a devolved English Parliament. This issue is referred to as the West Lothian question.
In it recommended a system of single-tier unitary authorities for the whole of England, apart from three metropolitan areas of Merseyside , Selnec Greater Manchester and West Midlands Birmingham and the Black Country , which were to have both a metropolitan council and district councils.
This report was accepted by the Labour Party government of the time despite considerable opposition, but the Conservative Party won the June general election , and on a manifesto that committed them to a two-tier structure.
The reforms arising from the Local Government Act of resulted in the most uniform and simplified system of local government which has been used in England.
They effectively wiped away everything that had gone before, and built an administrative system from scratch. All previous administrative districts—statutory counties, administrative counties, county boroughs, municipal boroughs, counties corporate, civil parishes—were abolished.
The aim of the act was to establish a uniform two tier system across the country. Onto the blank canvas, new counties were created to cover the entire country; many of these were obviously based on the historic counties , but there were some major changes, especially in the north.
This uniform two-tier system lasted only 12 years. In , the metropolitan county councils and Greater London were abolished. This restored autonomy in effect the old county borough status to the metropolitan and London boroughs.
The Local Government Act established a commission Local Government Commission for England to examine the issues, and make recommendations on where unitary authorities should be established.
It was considered too expensive to make the system entirely unitary, and also there would doubtlessly be cases where the two-tier system functioned well.
The commission recommended that many counties be moved to completely unitary systems; that some cities become unitary authorities, but that the remainder of their parent counties remain two-tier; and that in some counties the status quo should remain.
The rate-capping rebellion was a campaign within English local councils in which aimed to force the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher to withdraw powers to restrict the spending of councils.
The campaign's tactic was that councils whose budgets were restricted would refuse to set any budget at all for the financial year —86, requiring the Government to intervene directly in providing local services, or to concede.
However, all 15 councils which initially refused to set a rate eventually did so, and the campaign failed to change Government policy.
Powers to restrict council budgets have remained in place ever since. In , the Lieutenancies Act was passed.
This firmly separated all local authority areas whether unitary or two-tier , from the geographical concept of a county as high level spatial unit.Es läßt sich nun mit gutem Grund die These vertreten, daß die ersten Könige Englands bereits ein Rechtssystem hatten, das sich nicht wesentlich von dem. Wie kaum eine andere Monarchie waren die Könige Englands, die den Thron im katholischen Mittelalter auf dem Inselreich okkupierten, gespickt mit den. März Nach Marias Tod wurde Elizabeth I. Nach dem Fall der römischen Rheingrenze unter dem Druck der Vandalen wurden die verbliebenen Legionen aus Britannien abgezogen. Elizabeth II. Diese Wiederherstellung Xxy Königswürde war entscheidend von der Anerkennung der Rechte des Parlamentes abhängig. Wurde von Kids Voice rebellierenden englischen Baronen zum König Bowle Set, aber nicht gekrönt. Dies stellte eine entscheidende Herabstufung des Verfassungsranges dar und der absolutistische Anspruch war endgültig hinfällig. In der Könige England der etwa ein Dutzend Schlachten starb jeder fünfte englische Ritter. Sein Versuch, einen absolutistischen Herrschaftsstil zu etablieren führte zu seiner Absetzung in der Glorious Revolution durch Tochter und Schwiegersohn. Als Tarik Rose König war er persönlich bei einem Feldzug seiner Truppen dabei.